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SPECIES WITH POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL FOR HOMEGARDEN USE

1. Champada (Artocarpus integer Merr.)

The synonyms are Artocarpus integrifolia L.f., Artocarpus polyphema Persoon, and Artocarpus champeden (Lour.) Chempedak (English); chempedak, campedak (Malay), baroh (Lingga) (Indonesia); chempedak (cultivated), bankong (wild), baroh (Johor) (Malaysia); sonekadat (Myanmar); and champada (Thailand) (Jansen, 1991).

This group includes nineteen species that may have some potential of being developed for home garden use. The prospects for bringing fruits from this category into Thailand's markets may be faced with difficulties. However, they may prove to be valuable genetic resources for future research. In this respect, research on utilization and nutritional value of these fruits should be undertaken in order to select suitable species for cultivation.

Champada belongs to the Moraceae family, the same family as the jackfruit and breadfruit. It is very popular in southern Thailand, particularly at Yor Island (Koh-yor) on Songkhla lake. The appearance is very similar to the jackfruit, but it can be distinguished by the long brown hairs on the leaves and twigs, and the fruits are somewhat smaller. The champada is widely distributed in southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. It is also cultivated in Indonesia, especially in the Lingga Archipelago, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Irian Jaya as well as in West Java (Jansen, 1991).

Champada is an evergreen monoecious tree. It can grow up to 20 m tall, and is seldom buttressed. The bark is greyish brown with bumps on the trunk and main limbs where leafy twigs are produced, which bear the fruits.

Champada is a common tree in secondary forests and locally abundant in primary lowland rainforest in its area of natural occurrence. It is a long living sub-canopy tree and can grow at altitudes of up to 500 m in Thailand, often on wet hillsides. It is strictly tropical and always restricted to regions without a distinct dry season. The tree thrives on fertile well drained soils, but prefers a fairly high water table. It can survive periodic flooding even with acid swamp water.

The total fruit weight varies from 600-3,500 g and is generally smaller than the jackfruit.The composition of seeds, also based on dry weight, is approximately: protein 10-13 percent, fat 0.5-1.5 percent, carbohydrates 77-81 percent, fibre 4-6 percent and ash 3-4 percent. Water content (fresh weight basis) is 46-78 percent.

2. Chomphu-nam dok mai (Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston)

Rose apple, malabar plum (English); pome rose, jambosier (France); jambu air mawar, jambu mawar, jambu kraton (Indonesia); jambu kelampol, jambu mawer (Malaysia); tampoy (Tagalog), bunlaun (Bisaya), yambo (Philippines); chm-puu (Cambodia); ching, kieng (Laos); chomphu-nam dok mai (Central), manom hom (North), yamu-panawa (Malay-Yala) (Thailand); l b do, roi (Viet Nam).

Rose apple or "Chomphu-nam dok mai" as it is known in Thailand is also in the Myrtaceae family. It is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia and Malaysia and South Thailand may be its centre of origin (van Lingen, 1991). Some literature claims that it was introduced from India (Morton, 1987) and the East Indies (Kennard and Winters, 1960). The tree has been grown throughout the tropics and has become naturalized in many tropical countries.

Chomphu-nam dok mai is an evergreen tree, which can grow up to 10 m tall with a 50 cm trunk diameter. The tree is low branching and often found as a dense crown of wide-spreading branches.

Chomphu-nam dok mai is normally propagated from seeds. The seeds have no dormancy and germinate well. A single seed often gives rise to 3-8 seedlings and most of them are true to type.

The fruits, if meant to be consumed fresh. The nutritional value per 100 g edible portion of the fruit comprises: 84-89 g water, 0.5-0.8 g protein, 0.2-0.3 g fat, 9.7-14.2 g carbohydrates, 1-2 g fibre, 0.3-0.4 g ash, 123-235 IU carotene, 0.55-1.01 mg Vitamin B complex and 3-37 vitamin C. The energy value is 234 kJ/100 g.

3. Lang khae (Baccaurea macrophylla Muell. Arg.)

There is no English name recorded for this fruit tree. Gurak gatuk (Kalimantan), bua tampoi (Sumatra) (Indonesia); tampoi, tampul, tempuni (Peninsular Malaysia); lang-khae.

Lang-khae is a medium sized tree that can grow up to 25 m tall. The leaves are elliptic-oblong, and about 25 10 cm in size. In the old days lang-khae was propagated by seeds. However, there is an increasing tendency for growers to vegetatively propagate the tree, as seedling plants gave rise to more male than the female trees.

The fruit is eaten as fresh fruit. The taste of the flesh is sweet with some sourness, which can attract a wide range of consumers.It is also popular among the Chinese, Malaysians and Indonesians.

3. Luk-nieng (Archidendron jiringa Nielson)

Luk-nieng is one of the common fruit trees of southern Thailand. It may be eaten raw as a vegetable or cooked as a fruit. In Malaysia and Indonesia, this plant is called 'jering', and it is eaten in a similar way to that of the people of South Thailand. Luk-nieng belongs to the Leguminoceae family, sub-family Mimosaceae. It is believed to have originated and is widely distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and South Thailand.

The natural habitat of luk-nieng trees is in the forests of humid and mountainous areas, as well as along river banks of southern Thailand.

4. Luk-nieng (Archidendron jiringa Nielson)

Luk-nieng is one of the common fruit trees of southern Thailand. It may be eaten raw as a vegetable or cooked as a fruit. In Malaysia and Indonesia, this plant is called 'jering', and it is eaten in a similar way to that of the people of South Thailand. Luk-nieng belongs to the Leguminoceae family, sub-family Mimosaceae. It is believed to have originated and is widely distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and South Thailand.

The natural habitat of luk-nieng trees is in the forests of humid and mountainous areas, as well as along river banks of southern Thailand.It has been reported by the Thai Department of Health that 100 g of edible seed contains: moisture 76.3 g, calorie 92 units, fat 0.2 g; carbohydrate 16.9 g, fibre 1.3 g, protein 6.2 g, calcium 23 mg, phosphorous 38 mg, iron 0.7 mg, vitamin A 658 IU, vitamin B1 0.14 mg, vitamin B2 0.01 mg, niacin 0.4 mg, and vitamin C 8.0 mg.

5. Madan (Garcinia schomburgkiana Pierre)

Madan is found growing wild in the lowland and swampy areas of evergreen forests in Central and Southern Thailand. Villagers in the Central Plain brought them from the forest to grow for home consumption.

The young leaf is served as a vegetable accompaniment to many Thai dishes and can be eaten either raw or cooked. The fruit is rich in vitamin A and calcium and is eaten fresh, but has a very sour taste. It can also be used in a sauce of shrimp paste and chilli and eaten with vegetables and fish.

The traditional ethnomedicinal uses of madan's leaves, root and fruit are as an expectorant, treatment of coughs, improvement of menstrual blood quality, treatment of diabetes and as a laxative (Poomipamorn and Kumkong, 1997). Because of its high nutritive value, attempts should be made to develop ways of processing the fruit such as healthy fruit drink to attract more consumption. At present madan is only regarded as a home garden plant even though it has nutritional and ethnomedical values

6. Mafai-farang (Baccaurea motleyana Muell. Arg)

The English name of this fruit tree is rambai, which is also the local name for this fruit tree in Indonesia and Malaysia where it originated. In the Philippines, it is known as rambi. In Thailand, it is called mafai-farang (general), ramai, or lam-khae (Pattani), and raa-maa tee-ku (Narathiwat).

This fruit tree belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, the same family as related fruits like lang-khae and mafai. Mafai-farang is a native of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. It is widely cultivated throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java and Bali, and has found its way to neighbouring countries like Thailand and the Philippines.

Mafai-farang is primarily grown for its fruit. The clone that produces sweet and palatable pulp is desirable and selected for propagation. The flesh usually adheres to the seed and both the flesh and seed are often swallowed when eaten. Sweet varieties make a refreshing nibble or table fruit. The juice of any variety may be used to make drinks by sweetening and diluting according to taste and served over ice.

7. Mafai-jean (Clausena lansium Skeels)

Wampee (English); vampi (French); wampi, wang-pei (Malaysia); wampi, huampit (Philippines); wampoi, wang-pei (Singapore); kantrop (Cambodia); somz mafai (Laos); mafia-jean, som-mafai (Thailand); and hong bi, gir (Viet Nam).

Mafai-jean is native and commonly cultivated in Southern China and North to Central Viet Nam. The tree has been introduced to Southeast Asia, i.e. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Outside this region it is occasionally grown in India, Sri Lanka, Australia (Queensland), the United States (Hawaii and Florida) and in Central America (de Bruijn, 1991).

A fully ripe, peeled mafia-jean of the sweet or subacid type can be eaten fresh after discarding the large seed or seeds. The seeded pulp can be added to fruit cups, gelations or other desserts, or made into pie or jam. Jelly can only be made from the acid types when under ripe. The Chinese serve the seeded fruits with meat dishes. In Viet Nam, fermenting the fruit with sugar and straining off the juice makes a bottled, carbonated beverage resembling champagne. The fruit is reported to contain 28.8-29.2 mg ascorbic acid per g of edible portion.

The halved, sun dried, immature fruit is a Viet Namese and Chinese remedy for bronchitis. Thin slices of the dried roots are sold in oriental pharmacies for the same purpose. The leaf decoction is used as a hair wash to remove dandruff and preserve the colour of the hair.

8. Ma-khaam pom (Phyllanthus emblica Linn)

The synonym of this species is Emblica officinalis Gaertner. Ma-khaam pom belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. It is indigenous to tropical Southeast Asia, including Thailand. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens in India, Malaysia, Singapore and southern China.

Emblic myrabolan, Malacca tree and Indian gooseberry (English); kan-tot, kam lam or kam lam ko (Cambodia); melaka, asam melaka or amlaka (Malaysia); mak-kham-pom (Laos); bong-ngot, chu-me (Viet Nam); nelli (Philippines); ma-khaam pom (Thailand in general), kan-tot (Chanthaburi), kam-thuat (Ratchaburi), mang-luu and san-yaa-saa (Karen-Mae Hong Son).

Ma-khaam pom fruit is one of the richest sources of natural ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). The fruit is widely used by local Thais to quench the thirst when walking in the forest. In China, phyllanthus drink prepared from fruit extract is commonly known, and wine made from fruit extract is seen in the market. Many Hindus regard ma-khaam pom as sacred and the Hindu religion prescribes that ripe fruit be eaten for 40 days after a fast in order to restore health and vitality. It is a common practice for Indian housewives to cook the fruits with sugar and saffron and give one or two to a child every morning.

The food value per 100 g of edible portion of ma-khaam pom fruit as reported by the Finlay Institute Laboratory, Havana, consisted of moisture 77.1 g, protein 0.07 g, fat 0.2 g, carbohydrates 21.8 g, fibre 1.9 g, ash 0.5 g, calcium 12.5 mg, phosphorous 26.0 mg, iron 0.48 mg, carotene 0.01 mg, thiamine 0.03 mg, riboflavin 0.05 mg, niacin 0.18 mg, tryptophan 3.0 mg, methionine 2.0 mg, lysine 17.0 mg and ascorbic acid 625 mg. The ascorbic acid in ma-khaam pom fruit is considered highly stable, apparently protected by tannins (or leucoanthocyanins), which retard oxidation. Biochemical studies at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, show 13 tannins plus 3 or 4 colloidal complexes. In juice extracted from fresh fruits, the ascorbic acid was found to be stable for at least a week. Fresh juice stored at 2C loses only 14 percent ascorbic acid after 458 days. Only 30 percent was lost to evaporation over an open flame at 65C, but the product loses 40 percent during a week in a refrigerator and 100 percent after 20 days (Morton, 1987).

Ma-khaam pom is of great importance in traditional Asiatic medicine, not only as an antiscorbutic, but also in the treatment of diverse ailments, especially those associated with the digestive organs. In Thailand ma-khaam pom fruits are traditionally used as an expectorant, antipyretic, diuretic, antidiarrhoeal and antiscurvy (Saralamp, 1992).

9. Ma-kiang (Cleistocalyx operculatus var. paniala)

At present, it is found growing in scatter locations in some villages of the northern provinces of Thailand such as Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Lampang and Mae Hong Son.Ma-kiang fruit is sour and slightly astringent with scant smell. Local Thais consume it as fresh and prickled fruit

The nutritional value per 100 g of edible portion of ma-kiang is reported as: moisture 78-92.5 percent; protein 0.56-1.73 percent; fat 0.15-0.71 percent; fibre 2.30-8.24 percent; ash 0.33-1.15 percent; carbohydrates 4.77-14.75 percent; total sugar 0.09-7.32 percent; energy 23.7-64.5 kilocalories; calcium 22.2-135.1 mg; magnesium 4.89-25.4 mg; iron 0.16-1.11 mg; zinc 0.10-0.90 mg; vitamin B1 15.6 mg; vitamin B2 33.3 mg; vitamin C 14.6 mg; -carotene 34.3-2115.1 IU. Apart from the above nutritional values, the following amino acids have been analysed from 100 g of edible flesh.

10. Makok-farang (Spondias cytherea Sonn)

Makok-farang belongs to the Anacardiaceae family, the same family as the mangoes. The plant is native throughout South and Southeast Asia and has spread throughout the tropics. Makok-farang is also an important fruit tree in some Pacific Island countries such as Samoa

Fruit of the best forms is eaten raw. When green the fruit is crisp and subacid. As the fruit ripens to a yellow colour, the flesh softens; the flavour changes and the fibres become more noticeable. The fruit flesh is a good source of vitamin C and iron. When unripe it contains about 10 percent pectin. One hundred g of fresh fruit contains 0.8 g protein, 11.1 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g or crude fibre and 0.6 g ash. The nutritional value is 20 mg calcium, 2 mg phosphorous and 1.2 g of iron as well as 1382 IU of vitamin A, 70 mg vitamin C, 0.4 mg niacin, 0.02 mg riboflavin and 0.06 mg thiamine (Anon, 1992). There are diverse medicinal uses of fruits, leaves and bark in different parts of the world. The treatment of wounds, sores and burns is reported from several countries.

11. Ma-kruut (Citrus hystrix D.C.)

Mauritius papeda, leech lime (English); citron combera (French); jeruk purut, limo purut (Indonesia); limau purut (Malaysia); kabuyau, kulubut (Tagalog), kolobot (Bisaya), (Philippines); shouk-pote (Myanmar); krauch soeuch (Cambodia); khi-hout (Laos); ma-kruut (Thailand); and trc (Viet Nam).

Ma-kruut belongs to the Rutaceae family. It is very common in every Thai household as an ingredient for many Thai dishes. In fact, the famous dish "Tom Yum Kung" dish derives its strong flavour from ma-kruut leaves and peel. The origin of ma-kruut is not known, but it is widely naturalized in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

Ma-kruut leaves and fruit skin are used in many Thai dishes. The juice of the fruit is used for seasoning and to prepare drinks. Extracts from the skin as well as juice are used as an insecticide for washing the head and treating the feet to kill land leeches. Leaves are commonly used to season food in Thailand and other neighbouring countries.

12. Maphuut (Garcinia dulcis Kurz)

Maphuut is in the Guttiferae family. It is believed to be a native plant of the Philippines and Indonesia (Jansen, 1991). Maphuut is also found cultivated as a home garden plant in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

The fruits can be eaten fresh, but they are sour and can be made into an excellent jam. The fruits contain high phosphorous and carbohydrate.

The crushed extract of maphuut's fruit is used as a relief expectorant, for coughs, and scurvy. The crushed extract from the root is used for the relief of fever, and to reduce poisoning and detoxification. The crushed extract from the bark is used for cleaning wounds (Subchareon, 1997). In Java and Singapore pounded seeds are applied to cure swellings. In Java the bark is used to dye mats.

13. Matoom (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa)

The English names are bael or bel fruit. Bel indien (French); maja, maja batu (Indonesia); bilak bila, bel (Malaysia); bael (Philippines); opesheet, okshit (Myanmar); bnau (Cambodia); toam (Laos); matoom, tom, ma pin (Thailand); and trai man (Viet Nam).

Matoom belongs to the Rutaceae family. It is believed to have originated in the Indian Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh (Sunarto, 1991). Matoom is a tree that is related to religion and it is particularly found in temple grounds in India. The species has spread to Indo-China and Southeast Asia, particularly Thailand and northern Malaysia.

Matoom is a hardy, deciduous tree of the tropics and sub-tropics. It can grow under harsh conditions, including extremes of temperature in India. In Thailand, it only flowers and fruits well where there is a prominent dry season. The tree can tolerate alkaline soil.

The yellow or orange pulp is soft, very fragrant and pleasantly flavoured. The edible portion, i.e. the pulp, comprises 56-77 percent of the fruit and its composition per 100 g includes: water 61.5 g, protein 1.8 g, fat 0.39 g, carbohydrates 31.8 g, ash 1.7 g, carotene 55 mg, thiamine 0.13 mg, riboflavin 1.19 mg, niacin 1.1 mg and vitamin C 8 mg. The fruit rind is rich in tannin. Marmelosine (C13H12O3), volatile oil, limonene, alkaloids, coumarines and steroids are also present in different parts of the tree

Ripe fruit is eaten fresh and is also prepared as sherbet, syrup, marmalade and fruit nectar. The mucilage around unripe seeds is used as an adhesive and household glue. Ripe fruit extract is used against rectum inflammation. The rind of unripe fruit can be used as a yellow dye and as a tanning agent.

14. Mayom (Phyllanthus acidus (L.) skeels)

The English name is star-gooseberry. Ceremoi, cereme, cerme (Indonesia); chermai (Malaysia); iba (Tagalog), bangkiling (Bisaya), karmay (Ilokano) (Philippines); thinbozihpyoo (Myanmar);.kntet (Cambodia; nhm baanz (Laos), mayom (Thailand); and chm rut (Viet Nam).

This fruit tree is in the Euphorbiaceae family. It is commonly seen in home gardens throughout Thailand. Its origin may have been Madagascar, but it is now naturalized and cultivated pan tropically in Thailand and some other Southeast Asian countries.

Due to its sour taste, the fruit is mainly used for cooking, although pickled fruit with sugar and chilli is well known dish for Thais and is sold in local markets. The nutritive values of mayom fruit (per 100 g edible portion) are 28 k cal of energy, 91.7 g moisture, 0.7 g protein, 6.4 g carbohydrate, 0.6 g crude fibre, 5 mg calcium, 23 mg phosphorous, 0.4 mg iron, 0.01 mg thiamin, 0.05 mg riboflavin and 8 mg vitamin C (Anon, 1992). The traditional ethnomedical uses of mayom are reported as using the extract from the root to cure skin diseases especially relief from itching. Leaves are used as one of the ingredients in Thai medicine to control fever.

15. Noi nong (Annona reticulata L.)

The English names are custard apple and bullock's heart. Coeur de boeuf (French); buah nona (Malay), kanowa (Java), serba rabsa (Aceh), (Indonesia); nona, nona kapri, lonang (Malaysia); sarikaya (Philippines); mo bat, mean bat (Cambodia); khan tua lot (Laos); noi nong (Central), noi nang (South), manong (North), (Thailand); and binh bat, qua nam mng cu dai (Viet Nam).

Noi Nong is a member of the Annonas group and belongs to the Annonaceae family. In Thailand, it is less popular than its relative, the sugar apple (A. squamosa L.), which is grown commercially. Noi nong is a native of the West Indies and was introduced into Asian countries many centuries ago. It is occasionally found growing in the home gardens in Thailand. It is also found growing in Malaysia and the Philippines.

Ethnomedically, the leaves are used internally against worms, and externally to treat abscesses. Unripe fruits and the bark are used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. The seeds, leaves and young fruits have insecticidal properties. The hard seeds are very toxic, but can be swallowed whole with no ill effects. All non-fruit parts are quite toxic.

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